Introduction and Miscellanea Introduction It was the best of times.
Users sometimes report out of body experiences. Other physical reactions to LSD are highly variable and nonspecific, some of which may be secondary to the psychological effects of LSD. Among the reported symptoms are numbness, weakness, nausea, hypothermia or hyperthermiaelevated blood sugargoose bumpsheart rate increase, jaw clenching, perspiration, saliva production, mucus production, hyperreflexiaand tremors.
Trips usually start within 20—30 minutes of taking LSD by mouth less if snorted or taken intravenouslypeak three to four hours after ingestion, and last up to 12 hours. Negative experiences, referred to as "bad trips", produce intense negative emotions, such as irrational fears and anxiety, panic attacks, paranoia, rapid mood swings, intrusive thoughts of hopelessness, wanting to harm others, and suicidal ideation.
It is impossible to predict when a bad trip will occur. Generally beginning within 30 to 90 minutes after ingestion, the user may experience anything from subtle changes in perception to overwhelming cognitive shifts.
Changes in auditory and visual perception are typical. Some users report that the inanimate world appears to animate in an inexplicable way; for instance, objects that are static in three dimensions can seem to be moving relative to one or more additional spatial dimensions.
The auditory effects of LSD may include echo -like distortions of sounds, changes in ability to discern concurrent auditory stimuli, and a general intensification of the experience of music. Higher doses often cause intense and fundamental distortions of sensory perception such as synaesthesiathe experience of additional spatial or temporal dimensions, and temporary dissociation.
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LSD was ranked 14th in dependence, 15th in physical harm, and 13th in social harm. The most significant adverse effect was impairment of mental functioning while intoxicated.
Flashback psychology Some individuals may experience " flashbacks " and a syndrome of long-term and occasionally distressing perceptual changes. Several scientific journal articles have described the disorder.
Overall, the evidence seems to point to limited or no effect at commonly used doses.
LSD is not addictive. Agitation can be safely addressed with benzodiazepines such as lorazepam or diazepam. Neuroleptics such as haloperidol are recommended against because they may have adverse effects.
LSD is rapidly absorbed, so activated charcoal and emptying of the stomach will be of little benefit, unless done within 30—60 minutes of ingesting an overdose of LSD.
Sedation or physical restraint is rarely required, and excessive restraint may cause complications such as hyperthermia over-heating or rhabdomyolysis. Intravenous administration of anticoagulantsvasodilatorsand sympatholytics may be useful with massive doses.
The lower the dissociation constant Kithe more strongly LSD binds to that receptor i. Data averaged from data from the Ki Database Most serotonergic psychedelics are not significantly dopaminergicand LSD is therefore atypical in this regard.
The agonism of the D2 receptor by LSD may contribute to its psychoactive effects in humans. LSD exhibits functional selectivity at the 5-HT2A and 5HT2C receptors in that it activates the signal transduction enzyme phospholipase A2 instead of activating the enzyme phospholipase C as the endogenous ligand serotonin does.
LSD is a chiral compound with two stereocenters at the carbon atoms C-5 and C-8, so that theoretically four different optical isomers of LSD could exist.
The C-5 isomers of lysergamides do not exist in nature and are not formed during the synthesis from d -lysergic acid.This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S.
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