Analysis Of Tunnel Squeezing Phenomenon In Hydropower Project Season Maharjan The challenges in underground excavation depends upon rock mass strength, method of excavation and stress and deformation behavior of rock. It is important to obtain reliable estimates of these problem as early as possible in order to carry out construction with least difficulties. Squeezing is one of the common problems in excavation in Himalayan region where weak rock mass moves radially inward leading to decrease in size of excavated portion.
Do symptoms resolve when the individual is not in the building? Do symptoms recur seasonally heating, cooling? Have co-workers, peers noted similar complaints?
Remedial Action Appropriate persons -- employer, building owner or manager, building investigation specialist, if necessary state and local government agency medical epidemiologists and other public health officials -- should undertake investigation and analysis of the implicated building, particularly the design and operation of HVAC systems, and correct contributing conditions.
Persistence on the part of individuals and health care consultants may be required to diagnose and remediate the building problems. Comment The term "sick building syndrome" SBSfirst employed in the s, describes a situation in which reported symptoms among a population of building occupants can be temporally associated with their presence in that building.
Typically, though not always, the structure is an office building. Generally, a spectrum of specific and nonspecific complaints are involved. The key factors are commonality of symptoms and absence of symptoms among building occupants when the individuals are not in the building.
Sick building syndrome should be suspected when a substantial proportion of those spending extended time in a building as in daily employment report or experience acute on-site discomfort. If is important, however, to distinguish SBS from problems of building related illness.
The latter term is reserved for situations in which signs and symptoms of diagnosable illness are identified and can be attributed directly to specific airborne building contaminants.
There has been extensive speculation about the cause or causes of SBS. The ventilation system itself can be a source of irritants. Interior redesign, such as the rearrangement of offices or installation of partitions, may also interfere with efficient functioning of such systems.
Another theory suggests that very low levels of specific pollutants, including some discussed in the preceding pages, may be present and may act synergistically, or at least in combination, to cause health effects. Humidity may also be a factor: Other contributing elements may include poor lighting and adverse ergonomic conditions, temperature extremes, noise, and psychological stresses that may have both individual and interpersonal impact.
The prevalence of the problem is unknown. A World Health Organization report suggested that as many as 30 percent of new and remodeled buildings worldwide may generate excessive complaints related to indoor air quality In a nationwide, random sampling of U.
When SBS is suspected, the individual physician or other health care provider may need to join forces with others e. Both are known human carcinogens. Their carcinogenic effects are not immediate but are evident only years, even decades, after prolonged exposure. Asbestos Once widely used in structural fireproofing, asbestos may be found predominantly in heating systems and acoustic insulation, in floor and ceiling tiles, and in shingles in many older houses.
It was formerly used in such consumer products as fireplace gloves, ironing board covers, and certain hair dryers. When asbestos-containing material is damaged or disintegrates with age, microscopic fibers may be dispersed into the air. Over as long as twenty, thirty, or more years, the presence of these fibers within the lungs may result in asbestosis asbestos-caused fibrosis of the lung, seen as a result of heavy occupational exposure 58, lung cancer and pleural or peritoneal cancer, or mesothelioma For lung cancer, the effect of tobacco smoking in combination with asbestos exposure appears to be synergistic by approximately fivefold Occupational exposure may also be associated with increased risk of gastrointestinal malignancies.
Attention should be focused on those populations with continual exposure and documented health effects, e. Products and materials containing asbestos are not necessarily so labeled. Construction professionals or state or local environmental agencies may inspect and analyze suspect materials.
Manufacturers of particular products may also be able to supply information.Vol. Lamoni, Iowa, May 7, No.
In the Cleveland (Ohio) Plain Dealer for April 24th, we find the following in respect to President Joseph Smith and . Social constructionism is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
The theory centers on the notions that human beings rationalize their experience by creating models of the social world . A new perspective on global reptile pet trade based on key expert testimony from around the world • Many reptile species controlled under current policies remain illegally/unsustainably traded to supply the international reptile pet market, with rare and endemic species most threatened.
Because people spend a lot of time indoors, the quality of the air indoors can affect their health. Remodeling or renovating an existing home .
Understanding and Predicting Ultimate Loss-Given-Default for Defaulted Bonds and Loans with subordinated and interest paying debt, respectively.
The distinction between long- and short-term liabilities in Vasicek () was the precursor to the KMV(model. Default recovery rates in Credit risk modeling: a review of the literature and.
Social constructionism is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
The theory centers on the notion that meanings are developed in coordination with others rather than separately within each individual.