Sukyo Mahikari Centers for Spiritual Development teach the transmission of light energy that purifies the spiritual aspect of people and all things. Throughout North America, Sukyo Mahikari practitioners are active in community cleanup activities and in greening their communities. The Chicago and Los Angeles centers participate in Green Expos featuring green businesses, environmental organizations, and related groups. In SeptemberMayor Mufi Hannemann of Honolulu presented Sukyo Mahikari with a certificate declaring that September 27 will be Sukyo Mahikari Day in Honolulu in recognition of beach and park cleanup activities there over the past ten years.
How to Write a Summary of an Article? Effects of Desertification Environmental problems Of all the global environmental problems, desertification is, perhaps, the most threatening for poor rural people. The most accepted definition of desertification states that it is land degradation in arid, semiarid, and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities.
Drylands cover almost 40 percent of the total land surface of the world and are inhabited by approximately 1 billion humans dispersed over more than countries. A growing body of evidence suggests that a closer look at the social system and the role of its components is critical to understanding this frequent outcome.
Drylands are characterized by water scarcity stemming from the conjunction of low water offer i. In turn, the high evaporative demand of the atmosphere, resulting from high air temperatures, low humidity, and abundant solar radiation, determines that water availability is the dominant controlling factor for biological processes such as plant growth and herbivore productivity.
Thus drylands, though not barren, are ecosystems of low and highly variable productivity capable of limited human settlement and vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbance.
The proximate causes of desertification are complex and vary from region to region. The European Mediterranean region has a long history of human misuse.
War, urbanization, farming, and tourism have, over the years, altered vegetation to such an extent that, at present, virtually no natural vegetation exists there and soil erosion is ubiquitous.
In contrast, Australian drylands have experienced extensive degradation only recently. The introduction of domestic livestock by Europeans in the late s, together with the fences used to concentrate these animals and the suppression of fire, drastically reduced the abundance of perennial grasses, leaving more soil exposed to erosion by water or wind, and triggered shrub encroachment.
In the Sahelian region of Africa, where the concept of desertification was first coined at the beginning of the 20th century, the replacement of the original vegetation by crops, the increase of grazing pressure over the remaining lands, and the collection of wood for fuel resulted in a reduction of the biological or economic productivity of the land.
In particular, inappropriate use of heavy machinery, deficient irrigation schemes, and grazing management practices led to soil erosion, salinization, and overgrazing. Any attempt to assess the impact of desertification on human societies should first acknowledge the difference between the ways water-limited ecosystems shape the functioning of social systems and the effects of desertification itself.
Desertification imposes an additional constraint on human well-being by further reducing the limited ecosystem goods e. Failure to address this difference would lead to an overestimation of the desertification effects. Additionally, the manifestations of desertification vary widely, depending on the capacity of each country to mitigate its impacts.
For example, in Africa it resulted in declining productivity and intensifying food insecurity and widespread famines, whereas in the Mediterranean region desertification seriously threatens water supply, while many regions of northern Europe are experiencing an increase in dust deposition due to north African soil erosion.
The ultimate precarious social conditions thus developed generally lead to migrations, exacerbating urban sprawl, and may bring about internal and cross-boundary social, ethnic, and political strife.
Approaches to the desertification problem broadly fall into two competing perspectives: Whereas the former discourse rests on neoliberal values and Malthusian thinking, the latter has its philosophical roots in the self-reliant advocacy derived from the dependency schools of the s and s.
The GEM discourse depicts overpopulation in drylands as the main problem leading to the degradation of the ecosystems on which they depend. As seen in the GEM discourse, the global problem of desertification requires a global solution.
Therefore, GEM supporters promote topdown, interventionist and technocentrist solutions implemented through international institutions and conventions, such as the UN Convention to Combat Desertification. On the contrary, the populist discourse—populist in the sense that it positively portrays the acts of local people—emphasizes that the marginalization of smallholders and pastoralists started during the colonial period and was subsequently deepened by global capitalism, transnational corporations, and northern consumers as the principal causes of land overexploitation and degradation.
International assistance in the form of debt per nature exchanges or technological transferences is regarded as part of the problem itself.
Rather, the populist discourse focuses on local or traditional knowledge and community-based action as major sources to overcome environmental problems. However, despite its diametrically opposed explanations of the desertification problem, neither discourse denies an impending crisis caused by desertification.
Why, almost a century after its first detection, does desertification continue to be among the most important environmental problems faced by humankind? Though no single answer exists, there are some arguments to sketch an answer.
Undoubtedly the inherent complexity of the desertification phenomenon hampers almost every phase of the sequence leading to the mitigation or control of an environmental problem i.
These advances show that vegetation dynamics in drylands may remain seemingly unaffected by an increase in land use pressure until there is a sudden shift to a lower-productivity stable state, with stochastic climate events, such as severe droughts, acting as triggers.
Additionally, incomplete or inadequate scientific knowledge, together with the urgent need of integrative solutions for the Sahelian drama, may have driven actors to resort to the first workable options, leading to erroneous regulations at that time.
However, regulations of this kind are not dependent on scientific knowledge alone but also on political pressure mechanisms.
Thus an explanation of the failure to achieve sound regulation needs to consider political issues as well. National governments benefit not only from foreign financial aid but also from the use of desertification as the basis for severely repressive social control.Essay on Desertification ( Words) Article shared by Desertification means a process of degradation of the environment that usually is a product of climate and human activity and involves the spread or extension of desert-like conditions in a hitherto fertile area.
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This digital document is an article from The Futurist, published by World Future Society on March 1, The length of the article is words. The page length shown above is based on a typical . Desertification in Niger World Regional Geography Desertification in Niger is a very progressive threat that is affecting not only the nation but also other neighboring regions along the Sahel.
Location of Eritrea (dark blue) – in Africa (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union (light blue). Desertification in Nigeria - Brief Introduction According to the World Ecology Report of Spring , dry lands comprise of 41% of the earth’s total land area, and are home to roughly 2 billion people, or 34% of the earth’s population.
Desertification In Sub Sahara Africa Environmental Sciences Essay. Print and desertification but Sub-Sahara Africa’s main issue is desertification.
Many regions in Sub-Sahara Africa face massive effects of desertification. In Sub-Sahara Africa the society is changing due to desertification and the effects it has on society and furthermore.