This can lead to problems in writing research papers that require primary sources. The best way to meet the requirements of an essay or research paper is to know what type of sources are needed, which means knowing the difference between primary and secondary sources. Primary sources means that it is original article or book created by an individual or sometimes a group of people.
Numerical data are explained in written form or used in support of a written statement. Historians must be aware of the climate of opinion or shared set of values, assumptions, ideas, and emotions that influence the way their sources are constructed and the way they perceive those sources.
In addition, an individual's own frame of reference-- the product of one's own individual experiences lived--must be acknowledged by the perceptive historian in order to determine the reliability and credibility of a source in relation to others.
Good historical writing includes: Depending on the historian's intent, some sources change their designation. Determining what sort of sources to use, and the level of credibility and reliability of those sources, is an important step in critical thinking for the historian.
Primary Sources Primary sources are produced usually by a participant or observer at the time an event or development took place or even at a later date.
Primary sources include manuscripts such as letters, diaries, journals, memos. Newspapers, memoirs, and autobiographies also might function as primary sources. Nonwritten primary sources might be taped interviews, films and videotapes, photographs, furniture, cards, tools, weapons, houses and other artifacts.
How to Read a Primary Source To read primary sources effectively requires you to use your historical imagination along with your research skills. You must be Historians secondary sources when primary sources and able to ask questions, imagine possible answers, find factual background data, and craft an analytical response.
To evaluate primary sources, explore the following parts of the text or artifact by following these steps: How "neutral" is the text; how much does the author have a stake in you reading it, i. What evidence in the text or artifact tells you this?
People generally do not go to the trouble to record their thoughts unless they have a purpose or design; and the credible author acknowledges and expresses those values or biases so that they may be accounted for in the text.
How does the text reveal the targetted audience? How does the creator construct the artifact? What is the strategy for accomplishing a particular goal? Do you think the strategy is effective for the intended audience? Explain what you think this position may be and why you think it.
Give specific examples of differences between your frame of reference and that of the author or creator -- either as an individual or as a member of a cultural group.
See if you can find portions of the text which we might find objectionable, but which contemporaries might have found acceptable. Choose a paragraph anywhere in a secondary source you've read, state where this text might be an appropriate footnote give a full citationand explain why.
Relation to Other Sources: What major differences appear in them? Reliability refers to the consistency of the author's account of the truth. A reliable text displays a pattern of verifiable truth-telling that tends to make the reader trust that the rest of the text is true also. Your task as a historian is to make and justify decisions about the relative veracity of historical texts and portions of them.
Secondary Sources Secondary sources are produced when a historian uses primary sources to write about a topic or to support a thesis. Monographs, professionally researched and clearly written, about events and developments in the past might also use other secondary sources.
Arranged artifacts might also be considered secondary sources, e. Most books in the history section of a library and the articles in history journals are secondary sources.
However, a secondary source, such as George Bancroft's nineteenth century history of the United States, might be a primary source for someone who is writing an article on "Techniques of Writing History in the Nineteenth Century.
The key is to think about the material being presented and to connect it to other material you have covered. To evaluate secondary sources, explore the following parts of the text or artifact by following these steps: First read and think about the title -- what does it promise for the book or article?
Then, if you have a book in hand, look at the table of contents: You can use this as your outline for your notes or create your own brief outline. Always read a secondary source from the outside in: Ask yourself what the author's thesis might be and check it against your outline to see how the argument has been structured.
Continue to read the source from the outside in. For a book, quickly read the first and last paragraph of each chapter to get a good idea of the themes and arguments.Using Primary Sources: The detective investigates a crime that was committed in the past. He looks for evidence such as fingerprints or witnesses or articles that link the suspect and the crime.
News & Advocacy. AHA Announcements; AHA in the News. Advertising in FNN; Statements and Resolutions of Support and Protest. Guiding Principles on Taking a Public Stance. Travel with us through the huge but deeply rewarding world of primary research using manuscript collections.
You will find an argument for why manuscript collections are worth the time, as well as insider tips for navigating the foreign country we call the reading room. The authors of secondary sources develop their interpretations and narratives of events based on primary sources, that is, documents and other evidence created by participants or eyewitnesses.
Frequently, they also take advantage of the work of other historians by using other secondary sources. Primary Sources are directly taken from an individual or group of individuals, while secondary sources take information from an individual or group and analyzes the topic.
Remembering this information helps in deciding whether . Teacher-created and classroom-tested lesson plans using primary sources from the Library of Congress.